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Clean and Green: The Renewable Revolution

Posted by NYCA Blogger on October 17, 2016

Ms. Sneha  Pandey, an environmentalist, Btech. graduate

sneha-pandey-nepalThis month, one of the most celebrated news among climate enthusiasts was the ratification of the Paris Agreement – the ambitious climate accord of 2015 where 195 nations came together and pledged to keep global temperatures “well below 2˚C above pre-industrial levels” all the while “pursuing efforts to limit temperature increase to 1.5˚C “. By validating this Agreement, which was a culmination of over two decades of talks, nations from all four corners of the world showed marvelous cooperation and camaraderie in the face of lurking climate catastrophe. As a result of such actions, the agreement – which is concerned with what nations must do to slow down and adapt to the effects of climate change – is set to enter into force less than a month from now.

Along those who celebrated the news of the ratification are also those who are skeptical of the goals set by the Agreement. One validation to such skepticism is a recent analysis carried out by Climate Analytics – a climate science and policy institute – which shows that the current policies and pledges of various nations is insufficient in maintaining the thresholds set by the Paris Agreement: Temperatures would rise from anywhere between 2.5˚C to 3.8˚C by the end of this century in the current scenario. However, despite such dire predictions, the hold that dirty petroleum products have in most nations is still strong and, in some cases, even expanding. Fossil fuel companies are still extracting coal, gas and oil with no end in sight and refusing to change their polluting business models.

According to a carbon budget report compiled by the Carbon Tracker Initiative (CTI) – a think tank comprising of financial analysts and environmentalists – to have a 80% chance of staying under the 2°C threshold, no more than 886 gigatons of carbon can be emitted between 2000 to 2050. But one-third of the 886 gigatons carbon budget has already been spent in the first decade and for the remaining forty years, only 565 gigatons is left.

On the other hand, estimates by the CTI also shows that if all the proven  oil, coal and natural gas reserves in the hands of the fossil fuel companies and oil-rich countries like Kuwait and Venezuela were to be burned then  an equivalent of 2,797 gigatons of carbon dioxide be released into the atmosphere– emissions, more than five times the recommended limit, that would cause global climatic conditions to alter drastically and unpredictably.

To avoid such uncontrollable changes from occurring, experts recommend that 80%, if not more, of the remaining fossil fuels be left underground and instead, renewable energy must be promoted and deployed. However, dishonest fossil fuel companies and complicit government officials have always blocked any momentum on this front by dismissing renewables as an expensive technology that would have great economic implications.

While this argument held some validation a few years ago, it is no longer true. Renewable technology has undergone meteoric advancements over the past couple of years and prices have plunged dramatically. According to the investment firm, Lazard, the average global cost of generating electricity via. solar panels fell by 82% between 2009 to 2015. In the same period, the cost of electricity generation using wind turbines fell by 61%. On top of this, construction bids on projects in Dubai and China over the past six months show that the price for solar technology has still fallen by a further 25%.

Taking such plummeting prices into account, it is clear that even without special incentives, the price of solar generated electricity is already close to rivaling that of coal generated electricity. KPMG, an accounting firm, predicts that, by 2020, solar energy would be 10% cheaper than energy derived by burning coal in India. It has also been reported that, in the past six months, UK produced more power from solar panels alone than it did from burning coal – a prospect that had previously been dismissed as too harsh on the economy.

Nothing could be farther from the truth. In fact, countries that have invested in large scale solar energy are doing remarkably well economy wise. Investments in the renewable energy sector in Germany – a country that fulfills more than half of its energy requirements using solar energy –  supports more than four million jobs today and its ambitious green plans in the future is expected to more than double this number. Chile, another country where solar energy is thriving, is producing so much solar energy that for 192 days last year, electricity was free for its citizens. Imagine the economic advantages if such surplus could be harnessed and exported. Examples such as these show that renewable technologies no longer mean huge economic sacrifices: In the present context, countries can move away from carbon-intensive practices cheaply and quickly.

There is also another important consideration here: If relatively cooler countries like the UK and Germany are able to harness their solar potential in such a large scale, and so effectively, imagine what nations of the Global South –  with their comparatively hotter climate patterns  – can do with such technology. Countries with hot desert or tropical climates like Abu Dhabi and Costa Rica have reported amazing successes with solar panels . A success that can be replicated with other countries of the Global South as well – no matter their economic standing.

While awfully promising, solar energy is not the only prospect available to countries on the renewable front. Depending on the resources available, countries can use a combination of wind, water and geothermal technologies to meet any shortcomings presented by solar technology. Furthermore, petroleum cars can either be replaced by electric cars (powered by wind or solar generated electricity) or by biofuel cars – cars that run on fuel produced from crops or algae that have a lesser carbon footprint than their carbon-intensive, gasoline-guzzling counterparts.

 In all corners of the globe, ventures into various renewable technologies are thriving. The Islandic capital, Reykjavík, plans on achieving a carbon neutral status by 2040 by relying on the abundant geothermal energy available to it. In another part of the world, Japan has developed a technology that can harness the wind energy from a typhoon – a natural phenomenon with energy potential estimated to be so great that Japan will be able to meet  all of its energy requirements from this alone for several decades.

Even small nations like Nepal have joined the fight. Although Nepal’s  global green-house gas emissions is lower than 0.05%, its government has been promoting solar technology persistently – mostly as a solution to the ongoing energy crisis. Solar roof-top systems have become an integral component of building codes (that were revised after the 2015 earthquake). The government  also offers substantial subsidies for both commercial and residential installments of solar panels.

According to Mr. Manjeet  Dhakal, a senior policy analyst at Climate Analytics from Nepal, “Nepal’s neighbors, India and China, are actively pursuing clean energy options and are investing in solar, wind, and hydropower. Research and investment in clean energy is increasing and as a result energy options are getting cheaper for Nepal. So the time is right for Nepal to develop an infrastructure that is reliant on renewable technology.”

Nepal’s solar potential is immense. At an average solar radiation of 4.7 kWh/m2/day , for 6.8 hours of sunshine each day and with around 300 such sunny days in total, Nepal’s solar radiation is considered to be greater than Germany’s – the world leader in this sector. Nevertheless, any gaps identified in the solar energy sector can be filled in by hydropower as Nepal  – with its steep mountainous topography  that holds 2.4% of the world’s water resources – is deemed to have a whopping hydropower potential of 43,000MW.

Temperature records show that during the first six months of 2016, temperatures rose by an average of 1.3°C – the hottest months yet in recorded history. According to climate scientist James Hansen, we are already past a climate safe zone in the present. With an atmosphere where carbon dioxide levels have reached dangerous levels , the world cannot allow climate conferences to remain perfunctory acts – devoid of any real meaning or beneficial agendas.

In 2015, excluding the electricity generated from large hydropower plants, 10.3% of all the global electricity was generated using renewable resources – sun, wind and the likes. To ensure that this percentage rises radically in the upcoming years, we must make sure that all countries have access to  renewable technology.

While generating momentum on this front may be hard for many nations, activists and environmentalists can take comfort in the fact the struggle is only bound to get easier with time. After all, the era of renewable revolution is almost upon us.

Refrences

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Climate change in Nepal and 1.5 degrees

Posted by NYCA Blogger on September 9, 2016

Ms. Parbati Pandey

Nepal, a landlocked and a mountainous country endowed with natural diversity, glaciers, lakes, perennial rivers, is one of the best tourist destination in the world . Also, it is   fourth most vulnerable country due to the impacts of climate change despite of its nominal share of mere 0.027 % of the global greenhouse gas emissions. If you see this from a layman’s perspectives, in no time you’ll find it as the punishment for the crime which was not committed.

Nepal’s mountainous and challenging topography and socio-economic conditions ( ranks 145 on the Human development Index, nearly one-fourth of its population live below poverty line) make it a highly vulnerable country to climate change.(Nepal INDC_2016)

The impacts of climate change are already visible in Nepal as the people have witnessed unusual weather patterns, dry and wet landslides and also unusual rainfall patterns .The snow clad mountains are gradually fading off, frequent avalanches and Glacial Lake Outburst floods have killed many lives and affected the livelihoods of the communities residing in that area  .  Likewise, altogether 14 glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have happened between 1935 & 1991 in Nepal. In total, 21 GLOFs have been identified as being potentially dangerous at present. A certain rise in temperature will lead to the bursting of the glaciers which are already at a greater risk. The low income & subsistence users of about 38% of total population Nepal lies below the poverty line and are having hard time to afford for their livelihoods in Nepal. This is a great challenge to cope with climate change induced hazard & extreme events. The livelihoods of more than 80% local people in Nepal are heavily depending on climate sensitive area such as agriculture, forest and livestock and on other natural resources such as water & irrigation. So, certain change in the climatic patterns will ultimately leave  a huge impact .

According to NASA, July 2016 has been the warmest July in 136 years of modern record-keeping, and “it appears almost a certainty that 2016 also will be the warmest year on record”. If the temperature continues to rise in this rate, there will be a time when Nepal  will lose its pride as a mountainous country  along with the scarcity of water  and thus affecting the livelihood of the people all over Asia( Himalayas are considered as the water towers of Asia). More than 1.4 billion people depend on water from the rivers of the Himalaya. Glacier melt is only 4 percent of the annual 220,000 billion cubic meters of flow for the rivers of Nepal.

Last year in Paris, the international community agreed to keep temperature “well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature to 1.5°C. We can take this as a resounding success if the same focus is kept in the implementation phase as well. The decision taken by US and China to ratify the Paris Agreement is praiseworthy and we want other higher emitters to move on the same track.Keeping the temperature rise to below 1.5°C  is a dire need not only for Nepal but for every countries that are more vulnerable and with less coping capacities to the changing climate.

References:

1.Mool, PK; Bajracharya, SR; Joshi, SP (2001)Inventory of Glaciers, glacial lakes, glacial lake outburst floods monitoring and early warning system in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan region, Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal:ICIMOD

2.Nepal INDC_2016

3.http://www.worldviewofglobalwarming.org/himalaya_1/index.php

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Adaptation to Climate Change and 1.5 degree in South Asia

Posted by NYCA Blogger on August 13, 2016

Mr. Rajendra Panta, BSc.Ag 3rd year, Lamjung Campus

CaptureClimate is usually defined as the “average weather” in a place. It includes patterns of temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind and seasons. Climate patterns play a fundamental role in shaping natural ecosystems, and the human economies and cultures that depend on them. But the climate we’ve come to expect is not what it used to be, because the past is no longer a reliable predictor of the future. Our climate is rapidly changing with disruptive impacts, and that change is progressing faster than any seen in the last 2,000 years.

Climate change according to World Bank is any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity (Ahmed et al.2009) which is slightly different to that of UNFCCC (United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change) which describes it as ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly to human activity that alters the composition of global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable period of time’(UNFCCC 1992:3). According to both above mentioned definition humans will be directly affected and this could be the defining ‘human development’ challenge of our time (Ahmed et al. 2009). Climate change is and will impact, more severely to the marginalized and poor people and community (Shrestha 2009, Rai and Gurung 2005) even though it can be too early to blame it all on climate change factor for such changes.

Climate change is no longer an issue for the distant future. Climate change is already taking place and the South Asian countries, particularly the poorest people are at most risk. The impacts of higher temperature, more variable precipitation, more extreme weather events and sea level rise are felt in South Asia and will continue to intensify in coming years. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of South Asian countries and livelihoods of millions of poor people.

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Consequences of climate change in South Asia

  • Environmental hazard

   The first country to be affected by severe climate change is Bangladesh. Its sea level, temperature and evaporation are increasing and the changes in precipitation and cross boundary river flows are already beginning to cause drainage congestion. Bangladesh only contributes 0.1% of the world’s emissions yet it has 2.4% of the world’s population. In contrast, the US makes up about 5% of the world’s population, yet they produce approximately 25% of the pollution that causes global warming.

  • Economic hazard

   The Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research has reported that, if the predictions relating to global warming made by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) come to fruition, climate related factors could cause India’s GDP to decline by up to 9% contributing to this would be shifting growing seasons for major crops such as rice production of which could fall by 40%. About 7 million people are projected to be displaced due to other factors, submersion of parts of Mumbai and Chennai, if global temperature were to rise by a mere 3 degree celcius. Villagers in India’s North Eastern State of Meghalaya are also concerned that rising sea levels will submerge neighbouring low lying Bangladesh, resulting in an influx of refugees into Meghalaya which has few resources to handle such a situation.

  • Water scarcity

  Severe water shortages or insufficient access to safe water resources is called water scarcity. Out of all of Earth’s water (which covers about 70% of the planet) only 3% is fresh water and about 2/3 of that is inaccessible to us, being frozen in glaciers. Already, approximately 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water, another 2.7 billion suffer from water scarcity for at least one month out of the year and 2.4 billion people lack adequate sanitation which leads to the spread of diseases like cholera and typhoid fever. Water scarcity will continue to be a problem globally due to increase in demands for water, changes in water supplies due to climate change and poor management of water resources.

  • Others
  • The corresponding sea level rise at the end of 21st century relative to the end of the 20th century ranges from 0.18 to 0.59 m. Temperature rises on the Tibetan Plateau, which are causing Himalayan glaciers to retreat. It has been predicted that the historical city of Thatta and Badin, in Sindh, Pakistan would be swallowed by the sea by 2025, as the sea is already encroaching 80 acres of land there, daily.
  • Regarding the local temperature rises, the IPCC figure projected for the mean annual increase in temperature by the end of the century in South Asia is 3 degree celcius with the min-max range as 2.7 to 4.7 degree celcius. The mean value for Tibet would be higher with mean increase of 3.8 degree celcius and min-max figures of 2.6 and 6.1 degree celcius respectively which implies harsher warming conditions for the Himalayas watersheds.
  • As per the IPCC, depending upon global average surface warming will result in temperature increases world wide at the end of 21st century relative to the end of the 20th century ranges from 6 to 4 degree celcius.
  • A study showed a 16% decrease in snow-cover area in the Himalayas from 1990 to 2001 (Menon et al. 2010). There is a prediction that the snow cover of the Himalayan region will decrease by 43-81% by 2010 if the annual mean temperature at higher elevation increases by 1 to 6 degree celcius as predicted by the IPCC (Bohner and Lekhmul 2005)
  • Studies indicate a substantial decrease in the total area of glaciers accompanied by an accelerated fragmentation of glaciers in Bhutan and Nepal. Glacial depletion in Nepal was measured for 21 glaciers (measured in 2008).(Bajracharya et al. 2011)
  • Mosquitoes that once only populated in Terai region are now able to survive in mid and high hills.

Climate Change and women in South Asia Read the rest of this entry »

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My Experience working at NYCA

Posted by NYCA Blogger on May 20, 2016

Mr. Hementa Sapkota

It was March in our English calendar Kathmandu has welcomed summer already. Days were different totally. Some non-world emotions were changing me into the pond of feelings and tears. Looking at dancing, swimming fish in aquarium was something distractive. In the same days one of my friends informed me about NYCA Explore camp. When I heard I was so excited to involve in the camp. NYCA wasn’t new for me; I had heard many things about NYCA. Most importantly NYCA itself was a clear name. NYCA is active youth organization which is working for climate advocacy. Wow 3 day residential explores camp, I blushed. Now all I waiting was for that wonderful morning to meet those active and enthusiastic climate advocates.

Day 1

Beautiful morning of 10th March hit the valley lovingly. Those change makers; I found optimism and hope in them. Yeah, I found the hope of knowledge in them. We had a good acceleration from New Baneshwor. Everyone was busy in their own way. It didn’t take much time to reach in our destination. It was beautiful atmosphere in NWSSTC premises (Nagarkot). The beauty of silence was breath taking. Every cultural structure was artistically decorated. Enjoying the beauty of Mother Nature of far portrait hills, we listened Lalmani Wagle. He advised us to be in proper regulations and good manner. It was indeed first good impression of his suggestions and words of welcome. After storing bags and luggage we took breakfast. It was a great taste in group. We enjoyed our first breakfast. As we were running in regular schedule, we weren’t supposed to roam here and there. Followed by breakfast our first session was in beautiful training hall. Formally the event started. We scattered and take our positions. Nothing was boring nothing was bad. Every step and every breath we took in that hall still hit the head high. I was with beautiful Rejina Prajapati right and handsome Sanjay Thapa in left. Excitement was overloading. We formally introduce our side partners uniquely. The hall got the life of 35 youths. We began. Human psychology is philanthropically unique. Anywhere at any time new experience makes us creepy. It was indeed a sensational starting of first day. Dreamers, Movers and Shakers had sorts of unknown bonding. The first anonymous impression was that we were together for an environmental cause. Day began with vibes of positivity. We were learners but we had something within. We used be the advocate and protester of changing climate and degrading environment. The hall was in full swing of environment related issues and agendas. There was no spare of time to think exceptional than environment nature and earth. No any boundary to stand lovingly with earth and environment. I realized after noticing all those responsible faces that- We loved this earth much more than any other day we used to do before. The prime motto of the camp was to open the eyes for addressing real and rational environmental issues of our surrounding. For the prime reason 10thMarch was a success. After the day complete, we did something memorable which scratched the level of our hesitation and introduction.

Day 2

Now and then, nothing was new. 11th March was exciting because all the participants in the camp lived like a family in same building, we ate together in same dining, we played together in same court, and we danced like we never care if our hands are in the air. All 10th March things brought us in the forum of unity and mutual understanding. Second day was amazing just because of first days’ meaningful day off.

We leaned many things. All stuffs were related with environment, development and our roles. Many things were new and exciting. Presentation of our trainee brothers never let us felt like bored and hectic as they were super teacher. We demonstrated our potentiality and capability. We learn new things wisely. We did awesome and outstanding team work. As our brothers were by our side nothing was awkward and hesitating. We take their words advice and suggestions. Most say that; they opened our eyes. The life strengthening motivation and saturated knowledge of ‘Rajan Thapa’, ‘Bashanta Paudel’, ‘Lalmani Wagle’, Regan Sapkota’,and ‘Sudeep Acharya’ condensed us in the form of positive rainfall of non-fundable knowledge where ever smiling ‘Jasmita Khadgi’ and ever helping ‘Parbati Shrestha’ empowered us to do something good and innovative always. With flow and blow of knowledge and motivation, second day completed with greatest learning. Feeling was literally affirmative. Rest of the evening was full of fun romance and excitement. We slept with third eye knowledge after late night “truth and dare.

Day 3

Beautiful sunrise in Nagarkot took my breath away. I was literally forgetting that 12th March was the day weterminating the camp. But in real that was the day we were saying goodbye. That was the day we just came to our own place with single isolated heart. But apart from tragedy, those three days worldlyexperience we gained and the lesson we learned about friendship and bonding was much golden. Those were the days we learned about team work, unity and its strength. Those were the days we felt about responsibility of mankind towards environment and Mother Nature in real world. We got uncountable energy and strength to march for green, clean and peaceful environment.

Psychologically it never takes long to change someone’s life but from that day I had decided to do something for better world. And truth to be told three days explore residential camp brought new vibes in my hectic days. Not only in my life, NYCA has changed many barren psychologies into the green field of knowledge and information. Even after so many weeks those memories hunted me in my nightmare and it came as a recurring good dream. Now I understand, NYCA is really an open book for breath taking knowledge.

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“Jalbayu ka Kura”

Posted by NYCA Blogger on April 1, 2016

earth-globe1“The world is dynamic.” it was said by my environmental teacher in school which resonates in canvass of my memory since then. Sometime I ponder, Are we such dynamic? Are we so mad at changing world? Why we always look for development without its implication? Are we shameless & reckless in saving mother earth? Are we even serious about climate change? Only we are supposed to talk not act. The myriad of questioning, self satisfying answers and baseless hypothesis used to come in my mind. Education is change maker, I used to doubt on it. But after been educated, I am not only aware of burgeoning development across world but also consequences brought by them on nature as well human life. I am aware, I participate, I want change to come in thought and action. I want to see visible change not in future but also in present.

The climate change is most debated topic. Many believe it is happening and other argue that we are utilizing resources within earth, produce from earth so climate change is hoax. Its simply to let people remain in fear and benefit certain particular corporate sectors, INGO’s, NGO’s and environmentalist. There are always propaganda, conspiracy theories to distort facts and to left common people in be wilderment.Whatever may be side of coin, but change are visible and its happening rapidly then calculated rate. So Climate Change is happening, it can be felt and results are visible.

Climate change is not entirely anyone’s fault. But it will be everyone’s mis-happening if it is not abated soon enough. Many resources which are taken as granted by us will be history for forth coming generations. The developed nation, developing nation as well underdeveloped nation will be facing similar problem but mitigation may vary as richer will at least have chance to face it more, as of advanced technologies and facilities. The rapid population increment, depletion rate of fossil fuel & emission’s, haphazard industrial development, unmanaged urbanization, mismanagement of waste, negligence in developmental works, carbon mishandling and others. Lets not focus on problem, but concentrate on solution. The solution is commitment for change, to divert from current path to greener and innovative approaches of solving problems, clear ways of mitigation & adaptation based. There is no single solution to reduce climate change but mutual co-operation and goals are essential, no matter how much diverse nations of world might be in political system, geography, culture, religion. This is single opportunity to forget yester years doubt, mending relations and move forward for global goals for attaining distinct climate control goal.

Nepal, a mountainous country, blessed by natural diversity, perennial rivers, glaciers, mountains, lakes, proudly hosting tourism as one of major occupation will be in disastrous effect. The changes are already visible as snow clad mountains are fading off, frequent avalanches, snow lake burst off, dry & wet landslide are happening in enormous rate. Likewise, altogether 14 glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs).have happened between 1935 & 1991 in Nepal. In total, 21 GLOFs have been identified as being potentially dangerous at present. In this way, CC and livelihoods integral part and have vice versa relationship. The low income & subsistence users are about 38% of total population Nepal lies below the poverty line have hard time to afford for their livelihoods in Nepal. That is a great challenge to cope with climate change induced hazard & extreme events. The livelihoods of more than 80% local people of hilly region are heavily depending on climate sensitive area such as agriculture, forest and livestock and on other natural resources such as water & irrigation.

Scientific statements regarding changing climate of Nepal are pronouncedly focused on temperature rise at the rate of 0.06°C per annum. Such a rise in average temperature is variable across the country, being higher in the mountains and Himalaya (0.08°C) as compared to low-lyingterai (0.04°C). Climate change scenarios indicate that warming at higher elevations will lead to a reduction in snow and ice coverage, which in turn will lead to an increase in the frequency of climate-related disasters, including floods and droughts, as well as cause changes in precipitation at a regional scale. Changing climate will also likely shift the geographic range of crop pests, weeds, and diseases, as well as plant pathogen life cycles, requiring new crop management strategies. This justifies the strong need of understanding climate change at the regional scale and its relationship with socio-economic and biophysical context in order to develop mitigation and adaptation programs and minimize the risk at farm level in mountain region of Nepal.

Act of silence will lead us nowhere. Even if we speak it won’t matter much what is prime issues are action. How much we are able to act bring impacts before it’s too late. The good story is, we are not being mute spectator of fading history of earth but we are enabling to re-write one. The children are aware, youth are taking action and experts are working for finding optimal solution for checking climate change issues. The clean technologies, which were barely in experimentation few years back are greatly replacing traditional one, reducing carbon emission, providing energy access to urban settlement to rural livelihood. The dependability on fossils fuel has decrease significantly in industrial, automotive, and other sector. People are caring the environment they live in. The organization working in clean energy, environment, developmental works, policy planning are empowering youths, youths in turn are being harbinger of change in country. We not only care but want to see changes happening. Still there are vacuum to fill and bridge to build. The Bagmati clean campaign, Hariyo ban initiative, community forest, rural energy access, micro-hydro development, green entrepreneurship, clean energy like solar, wind, hydropower are few to name best implemented or are in the phase of implementation. The mass awareness campaign is slowly helping us to shape our current generations and change their attitude towards climate change. The individuals are more clear about their roles, responsibilities and action that can help to reduce impacts of climate change.

There is still long way to go to reduce impacts of climate change. The right policy, governmental support at national level will not be able to completely solve it, But commitment as well as participation of international community should be towards nation like Nepal where still large population are under poverty who really have to think for next day meal. The rural community should be empowered where solution for climate change will not only generate environmental values but also helps in socio-economic generations. The approach should be bottom up and vice versa. The solution should encompass all geographical regions, caste, creed, and ethnicity and propel towards greater human, environment relations which has to be win solution for both. There has to be development of mutual existence, growth and harmony between nature, natural resources and humans.

Bipin Karki is mechanical engineer, who cares about energy access, environment and climate change. He believes that innovative use of clean energy will help in improvement in rural livelihood, environmental and socio-economic values generations.
Reference
1.Mool, PK; Bajracharya, SR; Joshi, SP (2001)Inventory of Glaciers, glacial lakes, glacial lake outburst floods monitoring and early warning system in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan region, Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal:ICIMOD
2.Dahal, H., Pokhrel, M. and Pandey, B., (2011) National Adaptation Program of Actions to Climate Change: Food Security and Agro-Biodiversity Management in Nepal. Paper presented in Special Information Seminar of CGRFA-13 on Climate Change and Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: State of Knowledge, Risks and Opportunities, FAO, Rome, 16 July 2011, Red Room (A-121)
  1. Gautam, A. K. and Pokhrel, S. (2010) Climate change effects on agricultural crops in Nepal and adaptation measures. Presented in Thematic Working Group (agriculture and food security) meeting, Feb 23rd, 2010, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Photo Source:https://www.living-water.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/earth-globe1.jpg

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Nepal Gearing Toward Formulation of National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Process

Posted by NYCA Blogger on February 22, 2016

Nepal Gearing Toward Formulation of National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Process

Apar Paudyal (Syanda Village, Humla district, Nepal:photo taken Oct 18 2011)

In 2010, at the 16th Conference of Parties (COP 16) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) it was agreed to assist Parties to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plans (NAP) as a means of (a) identifying medium- and long-term adaptation needs and (b) developing and implementing strategies and programmes to address adaptation needs. The following year, COP 17 in Durban defined the objectives of the NAP process, to: reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, by building adaptive capacity and resilience; and facilitate integration of climate change adaptation, in a coherent manner, into relevant new and existing policies, programmes and activities, in particular development planning processes and strategies, within all relevant sectors and at different levels, as appropriate.

As a Least Development Country (LDC) and adhering to UNFCCC commitment, Nepal has already initiated national level policy and institutional responses to mainstream climate change into the development process. The Government is now implementing several initiatives on climate change adaptation aimed at building national, local and sectoral capacities to effectively implement adaptation priorities and action plans. The consideration of sectoral concerns on climate change in planning, budgeting and decision making process are evolving and are at different stages in Nepal.

In order to take a more considered approach and to work towards transformational change within the country’s capacity to address climate change issues, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MoSTE[1]) launched the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) formulation process on 18 September 2015. The launching event was primarily aimed towards facilitating country owned process by coordinating adaptation planning at all relevant scales and with a medium and long-term view. The Nepal NAP process builds on the experiences of National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) process in several ways, maintaining a country-driven, participatory, multi-disciplinary and gender sensitive approach. However, the medium- and long-term perspective of the NAPs process means that country require more sustainable and permanent institutional arrangements for continuous and iterative adaptation planning, to be integrated into national development planning processes. Gaps in, and needs for, technical capacity, data and information required at various levels of adaptation planning will also need to be addressed.

Ministry of Population and Environment (MoPE) being the focal point for climate change in Nepal, has taken the leadership role to facilitate the national process to identify and prioritise mid to long term adaptation action that fully considers climate change concerns in the national planning and decision making process. MoPE proposed to cover nine[2] thematic sectors for NAP.  This will enable the Government of Nepal to facilitate the NAP formulation process and come up with action plans to integrate climate change adaptation in the national and sectoral level policy, planning and decision-making process.

[1] MoSTE has been recently reformed as Ministry of Population and Environment (MoPE)

[2] Development thematic sectors: (1) Agriculture and food security; (2) Forest and Bio-diversity; (3) Water resource and Energy; (4) Public Health; (5) Climate-induced disasters; (6) Urban settlement and infrastructure; (7) Tourism, Natural and Cultural heritage; Cross cutting thematic sectors (8) Gender and marginalized group (social inclusion) and (9) Livelihoods and Governance.

First post on: Original post
Mr. Apar Paudyal, Senior Project Officer- Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction at Practical Action

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