Climate Change and Nepal


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World Environment Day 2017: Connecting People to Nature

Posted by NYCA Blogger on May 19, 2017

Pratima Oliya

Gongabu, Kathmandu

The World Environment Day falls out on 5 June every year which was denominated by the UN General Assembly in 1972 on the first day of United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, mainly to raise awareness and make people concerned about environmental issues all over the world. For the last four decades, World Environment Day has been bringing out various changes as 2016 was based on Prohibition Illegal Trade of Threatened; this year the World Environment Day 2017 is grounded on Connecting People to Nature and the host country is Canada.

The World Environment Day 2017 and its theme is Connecting people to nature, is based on raising out the voice against the destruction of the mother earth as the nature bears and provides us everything, however we don’t charish nature. The target of the World Environment Day 2017 is to extend the awareness and bring the many positive achievements connecting people to the nature which will be doing by various fun activities i.e games, entertaining programs etc. Canada is hosting this theme on the World Environment Day 2017. We all are noticeably concerned that the mother earth is going through the measurable and massive destruction which is by the global warming. The developed countries are the main source of such destruction as they are establishing many industries in the name of development. Development leads to destruction. The industries which are established to facilitate human beings, the smoke from the industries harms to nature which can be over explained from an example of Mount Everest. We Nepalese have glory and pride because the Highest peak Sagarmatha is in our country Nepal, however, the Mount Everest is slowly being changing into rock. Similarly,  the farmers can’t harvest and plant the crops on time because of climate change . When they need rain, it doesn’t rain. And when they don’t need adequate water, it rains heavily

The harmful and mischievous objects, gases and dust are mixed to the atmosphere which destroy the air quality; it is also another problem. While giving the example of Kathmandu, people can’t walk without mask to be protected from the dust. These mischievous gases and dust don’t only affect to human beings but to the nature also. The main cause of being our environment unhealthy and inferior is the unfriendly , wiseless behavior and negligence of human beings.

We all know that “Prevention is Better than Cure” , to conserve the world, to connect the people to the nature, the World Environment Day 2017 has concerned on the theme of connecting people to nature in order to pull the human to preserve all the natural heritages and resources awaring them first and letting the voice rose from themselves. On the auspicious day, all the people from all over the world can participate actively to plant one single seed of trees. If thousand people plant one-one single tree, one dense forest will be created by the next year which is not difficult to implement. Afforestation can be the best way and first step leap for creating the healthy and peaceful environment since we ourselves are responsible for destructing the nature. Then, we ourselves should be united for regenerating the earth with natural resources. Nature is bestowing us many things and resources,  though we have been so rigorous to the nature. The people should not only be concerned about development, property and unique reputation. Now they need to be embraced to the nature. The industries should be opened but limitations must be there and followed some measures not to harm and pollute the environment. In many developing countries, the old, feeble-structured transportations are plying on the road. The government should take an initiation to reduce the number as these old transportations throw the smoke which is injurious for both human and natural resources.

Many awareness and possible programs can be conducted not only concentrating to the urban areas but also to the remote areas though they do less participate to destroy the environment. No one should be freed to toss the dust wherever they like which can be strictly conducted by keeping the dustbin in some gaps, observing non-stop through CC cameras and punishing the unnecessary thrower. Furthermore, in the name of urbanization, the overcrowding  buildings should not be built which also enhances to demolish the nature as people will participate to misuse the nature. In addition the extinct and endangered wild animals also should be preserved. Wild animals are also the part of the nature. We don’t have any right take their lives and create the discomfort environment for them.

Thus, after adopting some measures for preserving all the aspects of the nature, the human would be benefited much as they would have the healthy life after once they will begin drinking pure and neat water and using the healthy air for breathing. Human beings are suffered from various diseases which are extended due to the unhealthy and polluted environment. However, alone, one organization and one country can’t be succeded for being connected to the nature. For that , all youths , adults from the world should be committed and contributed positively for establishing the healthy, peaceful and friendly environment not only on 5 June but all the days that germinate persistently.


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Posted by NYCA Blogger on May 19, 2017

Rubina Karki

Kathmandu, Nepal

indescribable innocence of and beneficence of Nature,–of sun and wind and rain, of summer and winter,–such health, such cheer, they afford forever!

Henry David Thoreau


The sight of playful yet intriguing droplets of rain pouring down, fresh breeze of wind gently touching your upset face, the inexplicable essence of the Earth when the sprinkles of rain benevolently caresses Her, the Chirping of birds early in the morning, gazing at trees dancing in the rhythm of wind….. The feeling is sensational, isn’t it? I can go on and on about the most exciting things you can experience, because to me, this is the very definition of nature.

Nature is an entity of life, the giver of Life. A place, where we truly belong. But, somehow we have forgotten about this. Buying a new pair of shoes, or latest gadgets or buying a bigger house may give us temporary feeling of happiness but, real happiness lies within nature. Us Humans, we have become so ‘advance’ that we overcompensate nature by replacing it with tall sky-rocketing buildings, highways with width larger than football grounds, power plants that dig up so deep it might never become resilient, and all only to think that we are on our indestructible path of redemption. And then we have slogans saying ‘SAVE NATURE’, ‘SAVE EARTH’, just enough to show (our sense of heroism) that we are such great caretakers, that our thirst for overachieving and over-demanding things we don’t even need has somehow vanished and we suddenly have had an epiphany and we are totally changed. But it is not Earth that needs to be saved, it is not nature we should have our mind-set upon because, nature was, is and always will be one step ahead of us. There was nature before the birth of humans, and will be even after our death. It is not nature, that is supposedly ‘a damsel in distress’.

A step further in extending our conscience would lead us to connect with nature. Many of our civilizations started and ended at the Bank of River, all connecting us back to nature. Our roots tell us, we had always been in close connection with nature, but why have we stopped? Many of us find comfort driving cars, or watching TV (it is not a crime to enjoy a fresh cup of coffee and watching movies you are so much in love with), but my point is, we have made a shield of ‘comfort zone’ in our own Human world and we have zoned ourselves in our so called human society that, we have not given up even a tiny place for nature to reside on. Sure, we have beautiful potted plants at homes, in our rooms but when will we realize our plant is plastic?

As a person who lives in Kathmandu, capital city of Nepal, I can fairly say, I might have lost my touch with nature. Living within the comfort of four walls of a room, rarely going in the countryside because, why travel when you can get anything in your well-guarded city, I have forgotten why nature is the reality. I don’t know what it feels like to walk in the soil bare foot. I don’t know what it feels like when twirls of tendrils tickle your body but all I know is you cannot keep on following others blindly. If someone says to connect with nature because you have to, with no understanding about why we have to, then my friend, you haven’t realised it yet. Self-realisation is one of many ways you can connect yourself with nature. Self-realisation is the reflection of your conscience and this leads to clarity.

So, how can you connect with nature? We don’t need grand gestures, big hoarding boards displaying our feelings because even the smallest of steps count when you have a clear picture of why you are doing this. Because, little drops of water make a mighty ocean.

Start with small walks, walk along with nature. Go places with nature, because that is what gives you peace. Joy is there, nature is where. Connect with nature to connect with yourself.


*Dedicated to all nature lovers out there, finding ways to connect with Nature.

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Preserve the Environment

Posted by NYCA Blogger on May 19, 2017

Shrijana Poudel

Chabahil, Kathmandu

We can hardly imagine our life without the environment. Environment surely helps us achieve indispensable pre-requisites of life such as food, shelter and cloth. Additionally, it bestows us with aesthetic and spiritual significance. Whenever we are close to nature we feel serene, peaceful and connected. Yet people have less or no concern at all when it comes to consequences on environment, while they consume life’s fundamental.

Nepal has always been known as a beautiful country with pristine natural resources. However these resources are gradually degrading as a result of environmental pollution. From the air we articulate to the food we consume, environment is committal. People execute handful of practices in order to accomplish the basic essence of life. And it has number of negative impacts on environment. For instance, wide varieties of agricultural practices cause air and water pollution, deforestation and soil degradation.

Also our country has been one of the most attractive tourist destinations. Many people visit Nepal to enjoy its serenity. Unfortunately, they also leave trashes while they explore hidden treasures of our country. Needless to say, this adversely affects the native ecosystem.  Construction industries, major source of income of many Nepalese, are prime mover for air pollution. Brick kilns expel thick black smoke which results in health hazards for real. Also, they boost in melting Himalayan glacial, culminating climate change. Kathmandu valley holds a great religious value. Along with numerous heritages, there are rivers like Bagmati and Bishnumati. But charm of these rivers at this moment, cling in our memories only. Rapid urbanization and developing industries drop waste materials in these rivers. It slays aesthetic values of river, moreover, threatening survival of aquatic organism and vegetation. In addition, its consumption may be fatal to human beings as well.

Breakneck up growth of technology has initiated number of activities like electricity generation, road construction, pharmaceuticals, paper and pulp industries and coal mining. These are also the significant contributors of global warming, ozone layer depletion, climate change and loss of aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity. Air pollution as a result of increasing number of vehicles and road construction, is becoming a deliberate issue in Kathmandu. It causes health issues like irritation to eyes, respiratory tract and allergic reactions as well. Likewise, imprudent dumping sites everywhere around the valley are aggravating to all of us.

Our lives are full of chaos. We cannot change our thoughts on facts but facts can definitely change our thoughts. What we think inside, we tend to show outside. And, if our external environment is so much chaotic, how can we be peaceful from inside? And I think inner peace is really important for a balanced life. These chaotic conditions are affecting us somehow and escaping into nature once in a while has become a necessity. It is essential to experience wilderness of nature but at the same time we need to preserve our precious resources.

 Thus, environment must be conserved by switching into sustainable and eco-friendly construction. Individual efforts too, make a huge difference. Habitually apart of blaming government, we can bring innovative ideas and expertise to foster sustainable society. We can compost biodegradable wastes on our backyard that may reduce pressure to dumping ground. We can also use eco bags while shopping. People who are fortunate to have enough access of water should limit the amount of water usage. Perhaps we will be able to breathe fresh air if we plant trees around the degraded lands. Energy efficient alternatives can be used to reduce harmful emission. Government of Nepal should consider waste recycling plans and policies to prevent further environmental degradation. This should be helpful not just for present generation but our future generations will thank us as well. We better be aware of the fact that there is no second planet to suffice our needs and greed.

“When the last tree has been cut down, the last fish caught, the last river poisoned, only then will we realize that one cannot eat money.” Cree Indian Proverb

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Clean and Green: The Renewable Revolution

Posted by NYCA Blogger on October 17, 2016

Ms. Sneha  Pandey, an environmentalist, Btech. graduate

sneha-pandey-nepalThis month, one of the most celebrated news among climate enthusiasts was the ratification of the Paris Agreement – the ambitious climate accord of 2015 where 195 nations came together and pledged to keep global temperatures “well below 2˚C above pre-industrial levels” all the while “pursuing efforts to limit temperature increase to 1.5˚C “. By validating this Agreement, which was a culmination of over two decades of talks, nations from all four corners of the world showed marvelous cooperation and camaraderie in the face of lurking climate catastrophe. As a result of such actions, the agreement – which is concerned with what nations must do to slow down and adapt to the effects of climate change – is set to enter into force less than a month from now.

Along those who celebrated the news of the ratification are also those who are skeptical of the goals set by the Agreement. One validation to such skepticism is a recent analysis carried out by Climate Analytics – a climate science and policy institute – which shows that the current policies and pledges of various nations is insufficient in maintaining the thresholds set by the Paris Agreement: Temperatures would rise from anywhere between 2.5˚C to 3.8˚C by the end of this century in the current scenario. However, despite such dire predictions, the hold that dirty petroleum products have in most nations is still strong and, in some cases, even expanding. Fossil fuel companies are still extracting coal, gas and oil with no end in sight and refusing to change their polluting business models.

According to a carbon budget report compiled by the Carbon Tracker Initiative (CTI) – a think tank comprising of financial analysts and environmentalists – to have a 80% chance of staying under the 2°C threshold, no more than 886 gigatons of carbon can be emitted between 2000 to 2050. But one-third of the 886 gigatons carbon budget has already been spent in the first decade and for the remaining forty years, only 565 gigatons is left.

On the other hand, estimates by the CTI also shows that if all the proven  oil, coal and natural gas reserves in the hands of the fossil fuel companies and oil-rich countries like Kuwait and Venezuela were to be burned then  an equivalent of 2,797 gigatons of carbon dioxide be released into the atmosphere– emissions, more than five times the recommended limit, that would cause global climatic conditions to alter drastically and unpredictably.

To avoid such uncontrollable changes from occurring, experts recommend that 80%, if not more, of the remaining fossil fuels be left underground and instead, renewable energy must be promoted and deployed. However, dishonest fossil fuel companies and complicit government officials have always blocked any momentum on this front by dismissing renewables as an expensive technology that would have great economic implications.

While this argument held some validation a few years ago, it is no longer true. Renewable technology has undergone meteoric advancements over the past couple of years and prices have plunged dramatically. According to the investment firm, Lazard, the average global cost of generating electricity via. solar panels fell by 82% between 2009 to 2015. In the same period, the cost of electricity generation using wind turbines fell by 61%. On top of this, construction bids on projects in Dubai and China over the past six months show that the price for solar technology has still fallen by a further 25%.

Taking such plummeting prices into account, it is clear that even without special incentives, the price of solar generated electricity is already close to rivaling that of coal generated electricity. KPMG, an accounting firm, predicts that, by 2020, solar energy would be 10% cheaper than energy derived by burning coal in India. It has also been reported that, in the past six months, UK produced more power from solar panels alone than it did from burning coal – a prospect that had previously been dismissed as too harsh on the economy.

Nothing could be farther from the truth. In fact, countries that have invested in large scale solar energy are doing remarkably well economy wise. Investments in the renewable energy sector in Germany – a country that fulfills more than half of its energy requirements using solar energy –  supports more than four million jobs today and its ambitious green plans in the future is expected to more than double this number. Chile, another country where solar energy is thriving, is producing so much solar energy that for 192 days last year, electricity was free for its citizens. Imagine the economic advantages if such surplus could be harnessed and exported. Examples such as these show that renewable technologies no longer mean huge economic sacrifices: In the present context, countries can move away from carbon-intensive practices cheaply and quickly.

There is also another important consideration here: If relatively cooler countries like the UK and Germany are able to harness their solar potential in such a large scale, and so effectively, imagine what nations of the Global South –  with their comparatively hotter climate patterns  – can do with such technology. Countries with hot desert or tropical climates like Abu Dhabi and Costa Rica have reported amazing successes with solar panels . A success that can be replicated with other countries of the Global South as well – no matter their economic standing.

While awfully promising, solar energy is not the only prospect available to countries on the renewable front. Depending on the resources available, countries can use a combination of wind, water and geothermal technologies to meet any shortcomings presented by solar technology. Furthermore, petroleum cars can either be replaced by electric cars (powered by wind or solar generated electricity) or by biofuel cars – cars that run on fuel produced from crops or algae that have a lesser carbon footprint than their carbon-intensive, gasoline-guzzling counterparts.

 In all corners of the globe, ventures into various renewable technologies are thriving. The Islandic capital, Reykjavík, plans on achieving a carbon neutral status by 2040 by relying on the abundant geothermal energy available to it. In another part of the world, Japan has developed a technology that can harness the wind energy from a typhoon – a natural phenomenon with energy potential estimated to be so great that Japan will be able to meet  all of its energy requirements from this alone for several decades.

Even small nations like Nepal have joined the fight. Although Nepal’s  global green-house gas emissions is lower than 0.05%, its government has been promoting solar technology persistently – mostly as a solution to the ongoing energy crisis. Solar roof-top systems have become an integral component of building codes (that were revised after the 2015 earthquake). The government  also offers substantial subsidies for both commercial and residential installments of solar panels.

According to Mr. Manjeet  Dhakal, a senior policy analyst at Climate Analytics from Nepal, “Nepal’s neighbors, India and China, are actively pursuing clean energy options and are investing in solar, wind, and hydropower. Research and investment in clean energy is increasing and as a result energy options are getting cheaper for Nepal. So the time is right for Nepal to develop an infrastructure that is reliant on renewable technology.”

Nepal’s solar potential is immense. At an average solar radiation of 4.7 kWh/m2/day , for 6.8 hours of sunshine each day and with around 300 such sunny days in total, Nepal’s solar radiation is considered to be greater than Germany’s – the world leader in this sector. Nevertheless, any gaps identified in the solar energy sector can be filled in by hydropower as Nepal  – with its steep mountainous topography  that holds 2.4% of the world’s water resources – is deemed to have a whopping hydropower potential of 43,000MW.

Temperature records show that during the first six months of 2016, temperatures rose by an average of 1.3°C – the hottest months yet in recorded history. According to climate scientist James Hansen, we are already past a climate safe zone in the present. With an atmosphere where carbon dioxide levels have reached dangerous levels , the world cannot allow climate conferences to remain perfunctory acts – devoid of any real meaning or beneficial agendas.

In 2015, excluding the electricity generated from large hydropower plants, 10.3% of all the global electricity was generated using renewable resources – sun, wind and the likes. To ensure that this percentage rises radically in the upcoming years, we must make sure that all countries have access to  renewable technology.

While generating momentum on this front may be hard for many nations, activists and environmentalists can take comfort in the fact the struggle is only bound to get easier with time. After all, the era of renewable revolution is almost upon us.


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Climate change in Nepal and 1.5 degrees

Posted by NYCA Blogger on September 9, 2016

Ms. Parbati Pandey

Nepal, a landlocked and a mountainous country endowed with natural diversity, glaciers, lakes, perennial rivers, is one of the best tourist destination in the world . Also, it is   fourth most vulnerable country due to the impacts of climate change despite of its nominal share of mere 0.027 % of the global greenhouse gas emissions. If you see this from a layman’s perspectives, in no time you’ll find it as the punishment for the crime which was not committed.

Nepal’s mountainous and challenging topography and socio-economic conditions ( ranks 145 on the Human development Index, nearly one-fourth of its population live below poverty line) make it a highly vulnerable country to climate change.(Nepal INDC_2016)

The impacts of climate change are already visible in Nepal as the people have witnessed unusual weather patterns, dry and wet landslides and also unusual rainfall patterns .The snow clad mountains are gradually fading off, frequent avalanches and Glacial Lake Outburst floods have killed many lives and affected the livelihoods of the communities residing in that area  .  Likewise, altogether 14 glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have happened between 1935 & 1991 in Nepal. In total, 21 GLOFs have been identified as being potentially dangerous at present. A certain rise in temperature will lead to the bursting of the glaciers which are already at a greater risk. The low income & subsistence users of about 38% of total population Nepal lies below the poverty line and are having hard time to afford for their livelihoods in Nepal. This is a great challenge to cope with climate change induced hazard & extreme events. The livelihoods of more than 80% local people in Nepal are heavily depending on climate sensitive area such as agriculture, forest and livestock and on other natural resources such as water & irrigation. So, certain change in the climatic patterns will ultimately leave  a huge impact .

According to NASA, July 2016 has been the warmest July in 136 years of modern record-keeping, and “it appears almost a certainty that 2016 also will be the warmest year on record”. If the temperature continues to rise in this rate, there will be a time when Nepal  will lose its pride as a mountainous country  along with the scarcity of water  and thus affecting the livelihood of the people all over Asia( Himalayas are considered as the water towers of Asia). More than 1.4 billion people depend on water from the rivers of the Himalaya. Glacier melt is only 4 percent of the annual 220,000 billion cubic meters of flow for the rivers of Nepal.

Last year in Paris, the international community agreed to keep temperature “well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature to 1.5°C. We can take this as a resounding success if the same focus is kept in the implementation phase as well. The decision taken by US and China to ratify the Paris Agreement is praiseworthy and we want other higher emitters to move on the same track.Keeping the temperature rise to below 1.5°C  is a dire need not only for Nepal but for every countries that are more vulnerable and with less coping capacities to the changing climate.


1.Mool, PK; Bajracharya, SR; Joshi, SP (2001)Inventory of Glaciers, glacial lakes, glacial lake outburst floods monitoring and early warning system in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan region, Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal:ICIMOD

2.Nepal INDC_2016


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Adaptation to Climate Change and 1.5 degree in South Asia

Posted by NYCA Blogger on August 13, 2016

Mr. Rajendra Panta, BSc.Ag 3rd year, Lamjung Campus

CaptureClimate is usually defined as the “average weather” in a place. It includes patterns of temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind and seasons. Climate patterns play a fundamental role in shaping natural ecosystems, and the human economies and cultures that depend on them. But the climate we’ve come to expect is not what it used to be, because the past is no longer a reliable predictor of the future. Our climate is rapidly changing with disruptive impacts, and that change is progressing faster than any seen in the last 2,000 years.

Climate change according to World Bank is any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity (Ahmed et al.2009) which is slightly different to that of UNFCCC (United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change) which describes it as ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly to human activity that alters the composition of global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable period of time’(UNFCCC 1992:3). According to both above mentioned definition humans will be directly affected and this could be the defining ‘human development’ challenge of our time (Ahmed et al. 2009). Climate change is and will impact, more severely to the marginalized and poor people and community (Shrestha 2009, Rai and Gurung 2005) even though it can be too early to blame it all on climate change factor for such changes.

Climate change is no longer an issue for the distant future. Climate change is already taking place and the South Asian countries, particularly the poorest people are at most risk. The impacts of higher temperature, more variable precipitation, more extreme weather events and sea level rise are felt in South Asia and will continue to intensify in coming years. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of South Asian countries and livelihoods of millions of poor people.


Consequences of climate change in South Asia

  • Environmental hazard

   The first country to be affected by severe climate change is Bangladesh. Its sea level, temperature and evaporation are increasing and the changes in precipitation and cross boundary river flows are already beginning to cause drainage congestion. Bangladesh only contributes 0.1% of the world’s emissions yet it has 2.4% of the world’s population. In contrast, the US makes up about 5% of the world’s population, yet they produce approximately 25% of the pollution that causes global warming.

  • Economic hazard

   The Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research has reported that, if the predictions relating to global warming made by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) come to fruition, climate related factors could cause India’s GDP to decline by up to 9% contributing to this would be shifting growing seasons for major crops such as rice production of which could fall by 40%. About 7 million people are projected to be displaced due to other factors, submersion of parts of Mumbai and Chennai, if global temperature were to rise by a mere 3 degree celcius. Villagers in India’s North Eastern State of Meghalaya are also concerned that rising sea levels will submerge neighbouring low lying Bangladesh, resulting in an influx of refugees into Meghalaya which has few resources to handle such a situation.

  • Water scarcity

  Severe water shortages or insufficient access to safe water resources is called water scarcity. Out of all of Earth’s water (which covers about 70% of the planet) only 3% is fresh water and about 2/3 of that is inaccessible to us, being frozen in glaciers. Already, approximately 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water, another 2.7 billion suffer from water scarcity for at least one month out of the year and 2.4 billion people lack adequate sanitation which leads to the spread of diseases like cholera and typhoid fever. Water scarcity will continue to be a problem globally due to increase in demands for water, changes in water supplies due to climate change and poor management of water resources.

  • Others
  • The corresponding sea level rise at the end of 21st century relative to the end of the 20th century ranges from 0.18 to 0.59 m. Temperature rises on the Tibetan Plateau, which are causing Himalayan glaciers to retreat. It has been predicted that the historical city of Thatta and Badin, in Sindh, Pakistan would be swallowed by the sea by 2025, as the sea is already encroaching 80 acres of land there, daily.
  • Regarding the local temperature rises, the IPCC figure projected for the mean annual increase in temperature by the end of the century in South Asia is 3 degree celcius with the min-max range as 2.7 to 4.7 degree celcius. The mean value for Tibet would be higher with mean increase of 3.8 degree celcius and min-max figures of 2.6 and 6.1 degree celcius respectively which implies harsher warming conditions for the Himalayas watersheds.
  • As per the IPCC, depending upon global average surface warming will result in temperature increases world wide at the end of 21st century relative to the end of the 20th century ranges from 6 to 4 degree celcius.
  • A study showed a 16% decrease in snow-cover area in the Himalayas from 1990 to 2001 (Menon et al. 2010). There is a prediction that the snow cover of the Himalayan region will decrease by 43-81% by 2010 if the annual mean temperature at higher elevation increases by 1 to 6 degree celcius as predicted by the IPCC (Bohner and Lekhmul 2005)
  • Studies indicate a substantial decrease in the total area of glaciers accompanied by an accelerated fragmentation of glaciers in Bhutan and Nepal. Glacial depletion in Nepal was measured for 21 glaciers (measured in 2008).(Bajracharya et al. 2011)
  • Mosquitoes that once only populated in Terai region are now able to survive in mid and high hills.

Climate Change and women in South Asia Read the rest of this entry »

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